Peasant Movement In Maharashtra

Peasant Movement In Maharashtra

 

A major agrarian unrest took place in Poona and Ahmednagar -districts of Maharashtra in 1875. In Maharashtra the british government had directly settled the revenue with the peasants. At the same time ,it increased the rates of revenue so high that it was impossible to pay the revenue and they had no option left other than borrowing the money from the moneylenders who charged high interest rates. More and more land got mortgaged and sold out to the moneylenders who tried their level best to achieve the land at legal and illegal terms. Peasant patience got exhausted by the end of the year1875 and huge agrarian riots took place. Police failed in meeting the fury of peasant`s resistance which was suppressed only when the whole military force at Poona took the field against them. Once again the modern intelligentsia of Maharashtra supported the peasant`s demands. But it pointed out that the source of misery of peasants was high revenue rates and government`s incapabilities to provide loan at cheaper rates.

 

1980-Farmer Movement In Maharashtra
The Shetkari Sangathana

Formation: Founded in late 1970’s by Sharad Joshi

The main objective of the Sangathana was to reconstitute the village community. Economically, by retaining within it the surplus; socially, by providing an employment generating self-sufficient village community based on artisan production; and Politically, by devolving power from the state to the traditional Panchayats.

Major Demand & outcomes:

Main Focus on the issue of remunerative prices to farmers.Prices of onion were increased by 25-30%.Advance for purchase of sugarcane was also increased.Farmers relieved of debts; prices close to those demanded.

 

 

Achievements:

Remunerative prices.Succeeded in getting concessions from the electricity department. A very strong awareness can be seen amongst farmers regarding the prices of their agricultural produce

 

Benefits:

Grant of easier loans at low rates of interest,abolition of taxes on agricultural implements,etc.

Shortcomings:

Cause of the most deprived was ignored. Another neglected issue is the one concerning the wage levels in agriculture. Lack of enthusiasm in improving the quality of rural life.

Monopoly purchase of cotton in the state . Sugarcane industry and Levy on sugar. Creating alternatives for marketing agricultural produce. Essential commodities act of 1955. Encouraging novel methods of Jowar utilization .Farmer promoted development companies as an alternative to  land acquisition by Government.

CURRENT CHALLENGES TO FARMERS:

Increasing Input cost. No corresponding increase in Output price.Threat posed by WTO.Abolition of quota system on Export / Import.

newport cigarettes

Highlights of Union Budget 2011-12

Changes in I-T slab. Threshold of exemption for all Income Tax assesses raised from from Rs 1,10,000 to Rs 1,50,000.

Every income tax assessees to get relief of minimum of Rs 4,000.

No change in rate of surcharge.

New tax slabs will be: 10 per cent for Rs 150,000 to Rs 300,000, 20 per cent for Rs 300,000 to Rs 500,000 and 30 per cent above Rs 500,000.

For women, the income tax limit goes up from Rs 1.45 lakh to Rs 1.80 lakh. In case of senior women citizens, it increases from Rs 1.95 lakh to Rs 2.25 lakh.

Fresh facilities, encouragement to sports and guest houses exempted from Fringe Benefit Tax.

Five year tax holiday for setting up hospitals in tier II and tier III regions for providing healthcare in rural areas from April 1, 2008.

Five year tax holiday for promoting cultural tourism.

Short-term capital gains increases to 15 per cent.

Commodities Transaction Tax to be introduced on the lines of Securities Transaction Tax.

Banking cash transaction tax withdrawn from April one, 2009.

Direct tax proposals to be revenue neutral. Indirect tax proposals to result in loss of Rs 5,000 crore.

Rs 500 crore for corpus fund to subsidise all women Self Help Groups for LIC [ Get Quote ] cover for permanent disability.

Agricultural loans given by scheduled commercial banks, regional rural banks and cooperative credit institutions up to March 31, 2007 and due for December 31 that year will be covered under the waiver scheme to address the problem of indebtedness.

No change in corporate income tax.

To protect tigers, Rs 50 crore for National Tiger Conservation Programme. Bulk of it to be used to raise Tiger Protection Force.

Plan expenditure fixed at Rs 2,43,000 crore and non plan expenditure at 5,74,000 crore.

Fiscal deficit pegged at 3.1 per cent and revenue deficit at 1.4 per cent.

Tax to GDP ratio increased from 9.2 per cent in 2004-05 to 12.5 per cent 2007-08.

No change in peak rate of customs duty for non

Customs duty on specified life saving drugs reduced from ten per cent to five per cent.

Special Countervailing Duty on power imports.

Customs duty on specified sports goods machinery down from 7.5 per cent to five per cent.

Duty withdrawn on naptha for production of polymers.

Duty on crude and unrefined sulphur reduced from five to 2 per cent to help raise domestic fertiliser production.

General Centvat on all goods to be reduced from 16 per cent to 14 per cent. Excise duty reduced from 16 per cent to eight per cent on all pharmaceutical goods manufacture.

Excise duty on small cars reduced to 12 per cent from 16 per cent and hybrid cars to 14 per cent.

Excise duty reduced from 16 to 8 per cent on water purification items.

Duty on non filter cigarettes to be raised.

Asset management service under mutual funds, services by stock exchanges to be brought under Services Tax net.

Threshold for small service providers raised from Rs eight lakh to Rs 10 lakh.

Allocation for defence to be increased by 10 per cent from Rs 96,000 crore to Rs 1,05,600 crore.

75 lakh people to be covered by health insurance scheme.

Allocation for Textile Upgradation Fund to be more than doubled.

Micro, small and medium enterprises to continue to get special attention.

Risk Capital Fund to be set up in SIDBI.

PAN requirement to be extended to all transactions in capital market subject to a threshold.

Rs 750 crore for upgradation of 300 ITIs in 25 districts.

Rs 32,676 crore as subsidy to Public Distribution System.

PDS through smart cards in Haryana and Chandigarh on pilot basis.

Three schemes to be introduced for providing social security to unorganised sector workers.

Sixth central pay commission to submit report by March 31, 2008.

Rs 624 crore allocated for Commonwealth Games [ Images ]

Farmers’ debt to be waived

Complete waiver of loans for marginal farmers owning land up to one hectare and small farmers owning land up to 1 and 2 hectares.

Agricultural loans given by scheduled commericial banks, regional rural banks and cooperative credit institutions up to March 31, 2007 and due for December 31 that year will be covered under the waiver scheme to address the problem of indebtedness.

One time settlement of loans for other farmers.

Agriculture loans restructured and rescheduled by banks from 2004-06 and other loans normally rescheduled under RBI guidelines will also be eligible under the waiver scheme.

Implementation of debt waiver and debt relief will be completed by June 30 this year.

Loan waiver scheme to involve loans liability of Rs 60,000 crore and to benefit four crore farmers.

By loan waiver scheme, the country is discharging a deep debt and sense of gratitude to farmers, says Chidambaram.

The corpus of rural infrastructure development fund to be raised to Rs 14,000 crore.

More reforms needed in coal and electricity sectors to ensure double digit growth in manufacturing sector.

Rs 800 crore for accelerated power reforms programme.

National Fund for Transmission and Distribution Reforms to be launched.

The loan waiver scheme will benefit three crore small and medium farmers and cover loans totalling Rs 50,000 crore.

One crore other farmers will benefit to the tune of Rs 10,000 crore in the waiver.

Foreign investment of 3.5 to 8 billion dollars expected for exploration and development of new oil blocks.

Rs 7,200 crore to be allocated to the Ministry of Women and Child Development, marking an increase of 24 per cent.

Rs 500 crore for corpus fund to subsidise all women Self Helf Groups for LIC cover for permanent disability.

A target of Rs 2.80 lakh crore for agriculture credit set for the coming year.

Rs 20,000 crore for irrigation projects under AIPB, showing an increase of Rs 9,000 crore over last year.

National Horticulture Mission to be given Rs 1,100 crore in 2008-09 with special focus on coconut cultivation.

Rs 75 crore to be given to Agriculture Ministry for providing mobile soil testing laboratories in 250 districts.

Rs 644 crore for National Agriculture Insurance Scheme, which will be continued pending evolving an alternative crop insurance scheme.

National Plant Protection Training Institute at Hyderabad to be made autonomous body and Rs.29 crore will be allocated to it.

A scheme of debt waiver and relief for small and marginal farmers announced.

NREGA scheme to be rolled out in all the 596 rural districts in the country in 2008-09.

Jawaharlal Nehru [ Images ] Urban Renewal Mission to get Rs 6,865 crore this year against Rs 5,482 crore past year.

Allocation for Rajiv Gandhi [ Images ] Drinking Water Mission to be increased to Rs 7,300 crore. Rs 200 crore for potable water in schools.

Rs 300 crore to be set aside for desalination plant in Chennai for drinking water.

Rs 500 crore for identifying urgent needs of development programmes of border areas like Arunachal Pradesh.

SC, ST and minority students to continue to get special attention.

Allocation for several schemes in North East raised from Rs 14,365 crore to Rs 16,400 crore.

Rs 75 crore sanctioned for Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Programme for SC/ST students pursuing M.Phil.

Rs 230 crore will be extended as additional equity to developmental organisations looking after the welfare of SC,

ST, socially and economically backward classes and minorities.

Allocation for Minority Affairs Ministry to be doubled from Rs 500 crore to Rs 1,000 crore.

Rs 540 crore for multi-sectoral development plan for minority concentration districts.

288 public sector bank branches to be opened in districts having minority community concentration.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be provided Rs 13,100 crore, Mid Day Meal scheme Rs 8,000 crore, Secondary education Scheme Rs 4,554 crore.

410 additional Kasturba Gandhi [ Images ] Vidyalaya to be set up in backward blocks.

Navodaya Vidyalayas to be opened in 20 districts with special focus on regions having SC/ST concentration.

Allocation of Rs 130 crore for this purpose. Rs.750 crore more to be given for merit scholarship to students up to 10th and 12th class.

Mid day Meal scheme extended to upper primary level in 3479 schools. 16 central universities to be opened in 2008-09.

Three IITs to be set up in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan [ Images ].

Schools of architecture and planning in Bhopal and Vijaywada. More institutes of higher education to be opened.

Rs 100 crore to be given to Information Technology Ministry to set up national knowledge centres.

Allocation for NRHM increased to Rs 12,050 crore

Rs 992 crore for national AIDS programme.

A national programme for the elderly to be started at a cost of Rs. 400 crore.

Rashtra Swasthya Beema Yojana to start from April one in Delhi [ Images ] and Haryana. Rs 30,000 for each family belonging to unorganised sector.

Allocation for ICDS increased to Rs 6300 crore.

Rs 85 crore sanctioned for scholarships to students pursuing science education.

Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research to be set up at Bhopal and Thiruvananthapuram.

Agriculture credit doubled in the first two years of the government to reach Rs.2.40 lakh crore by March 2008.

Eleventh Plan started on a robust growth.

Gross budgetary support to be raised to Rs 2,43,386 crore, an increase of more than Rs 38,000 crore from the current level.

Allocation for Bharat Nirman to be raised to Rs 31,280 crore.

Twenty per cent hike in education budget this year from Rs 28,674 crore to Rs 34,400 crore.

GDP growth slows down to 8.4 per cent during quarter ended December 31, 2007 as compared to 9.1 per cent a year ago.

Economy grew over eight per cent over 12 successive quarters since 2005, says Finance Minister P Chidambaram.

Growth rate of agricultre extimated at 2.6 per cent during the current year.

Services and manufacturing sectors expected to grow by 10.7 per cent and 9.4 per cent, says Chidambaram.

Keeping inflation under check is one of the cornerstones of the Government’s policy.

Rice production estimiated at 94.08 million tonnes, maize 16.78 mt, soyabean 9.45 mt and cotton 23.38 million bales.

 

Concept of Good Governance

Good governance provides a platform that enables the Government to operate efficiently, effectively and transparently and to be accountable to the public. Primary Principles of Good Governance include:

 

•Public participation in Government
•Respect for the rule of law
•Freedom of expression and association
•Transparency and accountability
•Legitimacy of Government

Civil Society’s involvement occupies a critical place in the governance process and promotes good governance by facilitating people’s collective action for attaining sustainable socio-economic outcomes for the common good of the society.

 

Citizenship Development: For citizens to be active in public affairs and participate in efforts that promote good governance.
Policy Formulation and Advocacy: Influencing the decisions of legislators, elected representatives and public administrators
Watchdog role: Playing a crucial role in evaluating the policies and actions of the Government
Welfare Service Delivery: Providing necessary institutional basis for service delivery.
Impacting Electoral Politics: Impacting the outcomes of the electoral process
Reform and Social Change: Serve as an instrument for reform and social change
Collective Action: Facilitating peoples collective action in attaining sustainable socio-economic outcomes

Civil Society

Civil Society often constitutes organisations such as:

 

•Developmental Non Governmental Organisations
•Citizens Groups
•Self Help Groups
•Professional Associations
•Registered Charities
•Business Associations
•Trade Unions
•Faith Based Associations
•Coalition and advocacy Groups etc.

“Civil society or civil institutions can be in totality referred to as voluntary, civic and social organisations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that state’s political system)”.

 

Peasant Movement In Maharashtra

Peasant Movement In Maharashtra

 

A major agrarian unrest took place in Poona and Ahmednagar -districts of Maharashtra in 1875. In Maharashtra the british government had directly settled the revenue with the peasants. At the same time ,it increased the rates of revenue so high that it was impossible to pay the revenue and they had no option left other than borrowing the money from the moneylenders who charged high interest rates. More and more land got mortgaged and sold out to the moneylenders who tried their level best to achieve the land at legal and illegal terms. Peasant patience got exhausted by the end of the year1875 and huge agrarian riots took place. Police failed in meeting the fury of peasant`s resistance which was suppressed only when the whole military force at Poona took the field against them. Once again the modern intelligentsia of Maharashtra supported the peasant`s demands. But it pointed out that the source of misery of peasants was high revenue rates and government`s incapabilities to provide loan at cheaper rates.

 

1980-Farmer Movement In Maharashtra
The Shetkari Sangathana

Formation: Founded in late 1970’s by Sharad Joshi

The main objective of the Sangathana was to reconstitute the village community. Economically, by retaining within it the surplus; socially, by providing an employment generating self-sufficient village community based on artisan production; and Politically, by devolving power from the state to the traditional Panchayats.

Major Demand & outcomes:

Main Focus on the issue of remunerative prices to farmers.Prices of onion were increased by 25-30%.Advance for purchase of sugarcane was also increased.Farmers relieved of debts; prices close to those demanded.

 

 

Achievements:

Remunerative prices.Succeeded in getting concessions from the electricity department. A very strong awareness can be seen amongst farmers regarding the prices of their agricultural produce

 

Benefits:

Grant of easier loans at low rates of interest,abolition of taxes on agricultural implements,etc.

Shortcomings:

Cause of the most deprived was ignored. Another neglected issue is the one concerning the wage levels in agriculture. Lack of enthusiasm in improving the quality of rural life.

Monopoly purchase of cotton in the state . Sugarcane industry and Levy on sugar. Creating alternatives for marketing agricultural produce. Essential commodities act of 1955. Encouraging novel methods of Jowar utilization .Farmer promoted development companies as an alternative to  land acquisition by Government.

CURRENT CHALLENGES TO FARMERS:

Increasing Input cost. No corresponding increase in Output price.Threat posed by WTO.Abolition of quota system on Export / Import.

Rise of Hindi In Media

It’s not that he didn’t know English. He had studied the language, but Hindi was his forte. Unfortunately, that was when the film industry, where Dheer looked for work, was dominated by people who couldn’t speak the Hindi he was familiar with. He was so intimidated by the English-speaking elite in the industry that he had a tough time narrating scripts to them. Because he’d frequently slip into Hindi.
Dheer has come a long way since then. He’s very comfortable with English, though he continues to slip into Hindi during conversations. Only, now he is unapologetic about it.

What changed? Somewhere between narrating scripts and getting work, Dheer realised that what he thought was his weakness was actually his strength. He had something the English speakers didn’t – a command over the language that the entertainment industry primarily runs on. That gave him the confidence to forge ahead.

“I was getting work because of my knowledge of Hindi. People who did not know Hindi used to ask me for advice on how to write and say things. That was my strength,” says Dheer. Because of this, the TV and film industry has been good to him. Dheer conceived, created and developed the award winning TV serial Office Office; he wrote the dialogues for the Ajay Devgan, Kajol starrer U Me Aur Hum and also made his directorial debut with the film One Two Three.

The people in the entertainment industry are still more comfortable with English, says Dheer, and he’s right. Still, because people like Dheer have something the English speakers don’t, they are now more often heard.

Cool Quotient
Dheer’s confidence graph is not unlike the confidence graph of the Hindi language, which has steadily risen over the past 15 years or so.

There was a time when the average convent-educated Delhiite or Mumbaikar wouldn’t be caught dead speaking Hindi. It was the language one used to address members of the serving class – the driver or the maid. Hindi movies were laughed at and an invisible line divided the urban youth in college in two: those who spoke English, who were ‘cool’. And those who spoke Hindi, also known as behenjis and bhaiyyas.

Today, Hindi is a language much in demand. In Delhi University, the cut offs (the minimum percentage after which no more candidates are admitted) for the Hindi honours course have steadily risen over the past three years. This is a sure indication of the popularity of the course.

Not only that, English-speaking graduates from elite backgrounds who, a few years ago, wouldn’t have dreamed of a career where knowledge of Hindi was the predominant requirement, have joined the Hindi media in droves. Hindi has suddenly become cool.

Money Talks
Popular perception has it that the media explosion of the last few years changed everything. Indian viewers were suddenly spoilt for choice. From a channel and a half, we had 100 channels in English and Hindi to choose from. The demand for Hindi in the media grew, and therefore the demand for Hindi speakers.

But something came before the media explosion. The change began years ago, in the ’90s, with the liberalisation of our economy.

Liberalisation meant that prosperity flowed into smaller homes in smaller towns like Meerut, says Mrinal Pande, author and editor of the Hindi daily, Hindustan. “There is no market in India as big as the Hindi heartland. And when a market is big, it demands its own language and choices in that language. The demand is ‘If you want to sell me your brand, sell it to me in my language’,” says literary and media critic professor Sudhish Pachauri, who also heads the department of Hindi at Delhi University. So people who didn’t live in the metros or bigger Indian towns finally found that they mattered. They could ask for something and get it too. The growing clout of this large number of Hindi speaking people led to a growing confidence in themselves and their country.

“Whenever countries become con-fident of themselves, they take pride in their language and culture,” explains Mrinal Pande. “With economic prosperity, our youngsters grew up in a free atmosphere and started to see their language as a sort of an identity they are proud of.” But demand for and by Hindispeakers was not enough. The language has seen a resurgence also because it changed. And changed in such a way that it appealed to the youth, across all regions of the country.

Dil Hai Hindustani
“Language becomes cool if the current generation likes it and uses it. It becomes cool if it is part of everyday communication. And that happens when a language is ready to embrace change,” says Prasoon Joshi, awardwinning lyricist and executive chairman of McCann Worldgroup India.

Previously, an almost Urdu-ised Hindi had dominated our cultural space, including Bollywood, for years. But a trend that first started with advertising brought down that Hindi from its pedestal and made it more accessible. Then Bollywood, which was already responsible for the spread of Hindi, took it further, especially into regions that were hostile to Hindi, like the south and east of the country. “I find more and more as I travel,even in Chennai and Kolkata, more and more people speak Hindi now because Hindi films have really penetrated deep into India,” says ad and theatre man Bharat Dabholkar.

Ad man and entrepreneur Prahlad Kakkar traces the origin of ‘cool’ Hindi to the Pepsi campaign of the early ’90s that started with the cry: Yeh dil maange more! “Pepsi started Indianising their ads. So ‘ask for more’ became ‘dil maange more’. ‘This is the right choice, baby’ became ‘yehi hai right choice, baby’,” says Kakkar. This language, Hinglish, resonated with the youth who were looking for an identity. Youngsters were relieved to have found a language they could identify with. It wasn’t so Indian as to embarrass them, nor so Western as to alienate them.

Hinglish made people comfortable speaking a language they were embarrassed about speaking earlier because of a fear of goofing up, says Dabholkar who is seen as one of the founders of Hinglish thanks to his introduction of the language in the Amul butter ads on which he worked for years.

As a mix of Hindi and English, Hinglish made English prominent – but also helped Hindi become popular because the language loosened up. Ravish Kumar, features editor of NDTV India, explains the situation rather well when he says, “Hindi ke acharya ke bojh thay hum par (The weight of academic Hindi weighed many of us down.)”

That weight has gone, believes Prasoon Joshi. “Hindi was overprotected. It was bookish and unfriendly. Of late it has become more contemporary,” says Joshi. That contemporary Hindi can be heard in our movies, some TV serials, Hindi news channels and Hindi newspapers.

“The language of advertising also changed. The stars of the advertising world became the bilingual copywriters; not only for advertising but also as writers for movies,” says Kakkar. Prasoon Joshi has played no small role in helping making the Hindi language contemporary thanks to his work in ad campaigns like Coca-Cola (Thanda matlab Coca-Cola) and Chlormint (dobara mat poochna) and for lyrics in films like Rang De Basanti and Taare Zameen Par. “Previously, the language of common parlance wasn’t manifested in the movies. That has changed now, though not completely,” says Joshi, citing Rang De Basanti and Lage Raho Munnabhai as examples of films that brought contemporary, snappy Hindi to Bollywood.

Desi Cool
If small town India was getting more confident about its language, urban India was being reacquainted with its country – ironically – because of international channels like MTV and Channel V. These channels discovered the youth market in India and worked frantically to tap it, selling India to the Indian youth.

“MTV along with other youth channels drew a lot on the sounds of the street. We took things that were uncool and planted them in places that would make them cool. This included things like street language and calendar art,” says Cyrus Oshidar who headed MTV over those crucial years and now runs a brand solutions and youth marketing firm,Bawa Broadcasting. Their efforts led to a fundamental understanding among the youth that it was not uncool to love your own culture, he adds. Hindi, our national language, benefited from that.

Miles To Go
This doesn’t mean that Hindi is the new English. Yes, more people are speaking Hindi. Yes, there are more jobs available for exclusive Hindi speakers. Yes, Hindi channels are booming. But the truth is, if you want to be recognised as someone who has truly arrived, you still need to know English, and good English at that. “Hindi is still viewed as a downmarket language. English is still the language of the powerful, the elite,” says Ashutosh, managing editor of the Hindi news channel IBN 7. “Even now, many Hindi journalists won’t call themselves Hindi journalists. They will in all probability say, ‘I work for IBN 7’ or ‘I work for Aaj Tak’. This complexity is not attached to someone working in English news channels.”

“English remains the language of aspiration while Hindi is the language of society,” agrees NDTV’s Ravish Kumar.

In fact this pro-English slant is so high that it accounts for the puzzling contradiction that, though Hindi TV channels and Hindi newspapers reach out to lakhs more than their English counterparts, the English media makes higher revenues because premium advertisers always choose English over Hindi. That, however, is changing, says Mrinal Pande. “The footprint of the Hindi market is every marketer’s dream. Other Indian languages represent one or two states, while Hindi and its dialects is the mother tongue in 11 states and is also spoken elsewhere. Hindi is where the revenue is. Why do you think James Murdoch is shopping for a Hindi channel? Why do you think NRIs like Katrina Kaif who cannot speak a word of Hindi come to India to act? They are driven not by a love of the language but by the fact that they can make money out of Hindi. So Hindi is making a lot of strange friends,” she says. If that ensures the language stays alive, so be it.

Parts of Editorial Page of a Newspaper

Parts of Editorial Page of a Newspaper

 

1. Editorial: Editorial piece is considered to be soul of a newspaper/magazine.

 

Newspapers and magazines feature editorials, mainly by the editor or publisher of the publication. Additionally, most print publications feature an editorial, or letter from the editor, followed by a Letters to the Editor Section, articles, or op-ed. Some newspapers also has special religious column. The editorial in magazines usually appears in the fist first page of the magazine. However, all the magazines do not follow same patterns.

2. Column: A column is a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication. Columns are written by columnists who are well acquainted with the subject. What differentiates a column from other forms of journalism is that it meets each of the following criteria:

  • It is a regular feature in a publication
  • It is personality-driven by the author
  • It explicitly contains an opinion or point of view

Types of columns: a. advice column, b. critic reviews, c. editorial opinion d. gossip, e. humor, f. food column, music column

 

3. Op-ed: An op-ed, abbreviated from opposite the editorial page (though often believed to be abbreviated from opinion-editorial), is a newspaper article that expresses the opinions of a named writer who is usually unaffiliated with the newspaper’s editorial board. These are different from editorials, which are usually unsigned and written by editorial board members. Op-eds are so named because they are generally printed on the page opposite the editorial.

 

Although standard editorial pages have been printed by newspapers for many centuries, the first modern op-ed page was created in 1921 by Herbert Bayard Swope of the New York Evening World. When he took over as editor in 1920, he realized that the page opposite the editorials was “a catchall for book reviews, society boilerplate, and obituaries.” He is quoted as writing:

 

4. Letters to Editor: Letter to the editor sometimes abbreviated LTTE or LTE is a letter sent to a publication about issues of concern to its readers. Usually, letters are intended for publication. In many publications, letters to the editor may be sent either through conventional mail or electronic mail.

Usually, letters to the editor are associated with newspapers and newsmagazines. However, they are sometimes sent to other periodicals (such as entertainment and technical magazines), and radio and television stations. In the latter instance, letters are sometimes read on the air (usually, on a news broadcast or on talk radio).

The subject matter of letters to the editor VARIES widely. However, the most common topics include:

  • Supporting or opposing an editorial stance, or responding to another writer’s letter to the editor.
  • Commenting on a current issue being debated by a governing body – local, regional or national depending on the publication’s circulation. Often, the writer will urge elected officials to make their decision based on his/her viewpoint.
  • Remarking on materials (such as a news story) that have appeared in a previous edition. Such letters may either be critical or praising.
  • Correcting a perceived error or misrepresentation.

5. Editorial cartoon: An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration or comic strip containing a political or social message that usually relates to current events or personalities.

Major Forms Of Views & Opinions in Newspapers & Magazines

Major Forms Of Views & Opinions in Newspapers & Magazines

Newspapers reserve the page for what editors consider the most interesting and significant stories- important local stories and news of state, national and world events. Sections of the newspapers set aside for sports, lifestyle, entertainment, business and economic news. Pages and sections are devoted to lifestyle topics- stories centred about the family and the homes as well as the stories of broader social interest. Sometimes newspapers publish columns, sometimes pages, of news of special interest to children. Many newspapers cater to teen-agers with columns or pages of school news. Most newspapers carry news about gardening, food, clothing, fashions, home furnishings and home repairs, social problems and personal relationships- all of interest to both men and women and to readers of all ages.

 

A great deal of space is devoted to sports. Professional sports have multiplied and become a major interest of a large part of the population. The space devoted to sports in the newspaper is a reflection of this preoccupation. Sports pages not only carry news and feature stories about almost every sports or recreational activity imaginable but also include columns of summaries, statistics, schedules and standings. Fans may watch the game and television, but they turn to the newspaper for back-ground explanation and the state.

 

Newspapers also publish news about cultural events, about hobbies and recreational activities: concerts and art exhibits, book reviews, reviews of films and of television programmes, reports on architecture and bridge. They also publish reports on hobbies and columns on chess, coins, stamps and gardening. Feature pages or sections tell readers about interesting or unusual people, place and events. A newspaper publishes many technical stories about law, business, education, science, religion, medicine and other fields. These sometimes technical topics are treated in a more popular way for the average reader.

 

Newspapers may also organize much of their news coverage and the space devoted to news in another way. They look at news as international or world news, national news, regional news and state news and finally local news. You will find sections and pages of many newspapers with headings or labels that reflect this compartmentalized view.

Structure of the Editorial Page

Structure of the editorial page

The editorial page – also known as the opinion page, is the page reserved in a newspaper or magazine for the publication’s editorial. The editorial page of a newspaper/magazine is an opinion on any certain prominent issues. The editorials, articles/columns, letters to the editor, editorial cartoons are the main items of the editorial page. The usual location for the editorial page in Indian newspapers is in the middle page of the newspaper; it appears in two pages – Editorial & Op-ed page.  (Read:  The Indian Express the Hindu & the Asian Age).

 

Articles appearing on a newspaper’s editorial pages represent the views of the newspaper’s editor and/or its editorial board. Many print publications feature editorials/articles which are followed by ‘letters to the editor’ section where members of the public write in with comments on the editorials or articles in that publication.

The General opinion holds that the content of editorials in a newspaper needs to carry a message strong enough to eliminate the need for photos associated with the opinion expressed. Most editorial pieces take the form of an essay or thesis using arguments to promote a point of view. Newspapers often publish editorial pieces that are in line with their publication’s editorial slants. However, dissenting opinions are often given space specifically to promote balance discussion or debate.

 

Types of Reports

Definition:
Reports are designed to convey and record information that will be of practical use to the
reader. It is organized into discrete units of specific and highly visible information
Types of Reports:
Informational
· Inform or instruct – present information
· Reader sees the details of events, activities or conditions.
· No analysis of the situation, no conclusion, no recommendations.
Analytical
· Written to solve problems
· Information is analyzed.
· Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made
Persuasive
· An extension of analytical reports: main focus is to sell an idea, a service, or
product.
· Proposals are the most common type.
Difference between Reports and Correspondence
· Reports usually have a more diverse audience, more than one purpose and more
detailed information.
Typical Business Reports

Standard versus Ad-hoc

Standard

Many reports are executed not once, but many times. Therefore, they should not have to be recreated each time. Instead, it should be possible to re-access templates and fill them automatically with the new data. Whereas earlier, at the time of 3270 screens and matrix printers, there was relatively little freedom of structure, today, in the age of graphical user interfaces and color and laser printers, considerably higher demands are made. These, of course, increase the amount time spent on creating reports.

The more structuring options that reporting tools make available, the less the user will have to alter completed reports by hand. The days when pure ASCII output had to be painstakingly processed by hand in a text or graphic editor should definitely remain in the past.

Ad-hoc

However, if users would like a general view of certain facts for which there no pre-defined report exists, they need a tool that enables them to quickly compile this information themselves. It is important that they can quickly find the data they need. They need a tool that provides a business-operations view of the relevant data fields – characteristics, indicators and other attributes – and their links. This tool must be clear, and must help to find the fields needed by filtering and sorting.

If users have gathered together the data fields they want, they will then want to put them into a suitable layout geared towards their tasks. The requirements in such cases are normally less extensive than with standard reports, since the main requirement is not visual appearance but that they are functional – users want to create their reports quickly and be able to process data logically in ways that are best suited to their needs.

Blurring the Boundaries

However, ad-hoc reports are often called up not once, but several times. Users should not have to choose between two different options – they should be able to save an ad-hoc report and rework the visual image if necessary. Since, in many companies, IT personnel no longer have sufficient capacity to create all of the required reports, it is an advantage if end users can create standard reports themselves and leave only the fine-tuning to the IT specialists.

On the other hand, the IT department or software house that has developed the tools for creating reports can deliver special modules and templates (with the necessary powerful functions) that make the creation of ad-hoc reports considerably easier and quicker, meaning that report creators need not always start from scratch. In many cases, creating a report can also be helped if report templates exist that can be adjusted to meet current requirements with suitable parameters when executing the report.

What does this mean?

There are a growing number of options available for creating ad-hoc reports are increasing and the transition to reusable reports is becoming smoother. The desired result is being obtained more quickly and workload is being reduced in IT departments.

Condensed versus Detailed

Condensed

In the case of reports with condensed data the main focus is on data that can be aggregated. Usually the top-down method is used, that is, users start at a relatively high level of condensing and then display successively more details for important data (zoom in or drilldown). Experts also change (navigate) between different views (slice and dice).

Detailed

The other approach is the bottom-up approach. This is used mostly for reports that either contain hardly any data fields that can be aggregated, or for those in which the main focus from the start is on a detailed and complete overview of all selected data. To get an overview of the structure, particularly with large quantities of data, grouping and highlighting with color and font attributes are used.

Blurring the Boundaries

It is becoming more and more evident that the traditional drilldown method is not always the method of choice. Especially in cases where users want an overview of details from several areas, it is more sensible to use a display hierarchy in which the individual branches can be expanded and compressed. This corresponds to presentation in a hierarchical detailed overview in which only the upper nodes are displayed in the initial screen.

On the other hand, in the case of detailed overviews users also want to be able to aggregate the condensed data according to the hierarchy or group level, so that even here, the boundaries for condensed reports are blurred. It is not only the classic key figures (that is, numerical values: Quantities, amounts, and connected values) that can be aggregated here

Due to the fact that many users do not work exclusively with one particular type of report, it is important to provide user interfaces via which comparable operations can be carried out in the same way. Whether these demands are best met with one tool or with two similar tools is a question that is often discussed, and there are many arguments for and against both options

What does this mean?

The standardization of the two paradigms that originally seemed to be quite different, means that users do not have to decide which tool to use for processing data. They can decide there and then which tools to use for navigating through data, and mixed views are possible.

Key Figures versus Master Data

Key Figures

Traditionally, when reporting about key figures, there is a strong distinction between key figures and characteristics. Key figures are numerical and can usually be condensed with simple formulas (but sometimes only with very complex formulas, or even not at all). In contrast to this, characteristics are normally not numerical. Instead, they give criteria on the basis of which key figures can be gathered together. Key figures are determined clearly by the combination of characteristics. In other words, a combination of characteristics provides the key by which the data record can be identified.

There is a distinction here between Analyses (that are, for example, distributed in controlling, and in which key figures are analyzed from completely different angles and therefore show a higher amount of dynamics in the layout) and more Static Reports (such as those that are needed for financial accounting)

Master Data

Traditionally, when reporting about master data, there is no separation of characteristics and key figures. Usually people simply talk about Attributes that can show various properties. In additions to the question of whether the reports can be condensed or not, it is also important to consider other questions, such as, how often the values can be used.

There are also two extremes in this case: Very flexible Analysis reports or Ad-hoc Analyses that are used often, for example, in Human Resources, or Fixed Overviews, in which the format is more similar to that of traditional reports.

Blurring the Boundaries

For a long time, tools for creating statistical and master data reports were clearly distinct from one another, not only at SAP. This was partly due to the different demands caused by different program architectures, and partly due to the fact that other types of report are also significant in different application areas.

In practice it is becoming clear that other factors are needed to explain key figures. These provide not only more detail in the case of more complex key figures, by breaking down the process of calculating reports, but also additional attributes of the characteristics involved.

However, attributes in master data reports are often numerical, that is, key figures. Often users wish to condense these key figures according to a particular point of view on an ad-hoc basis. In practice this is the case especially with hierarchies or when forming groups.

In addition, sometimes-large amounts of attributes, which are not numerical, are condensable. In the case of dates and times, an earliest possible/latest possible date or time (for example earliest start, latest end) is often helpful. Moreover, counters for the number of entries or for the different attribute values within these entries are important. Together with other key figures they can deliver important information.

Due to considerable merging of departments that also need process-orientated general reporting, the sharp distinction between key figure and master data reports is becoming more of a hindrance. It therefore has to be removed.

What does this mean?

Users who want to create reports that can combine key figures and other attributes, finally have a tool that is suitable. Regardless of application, they can easily swap between key figure-orientated and master data-orientated views or methods of navigation, without having to change to another tool.

Replication in the Data Warehouse versus Direct Access

Replication in the Data Warehouse

A data warehouse has clear advantages in reporting: Data can be accessed more quickly because it has been stored in the way best suited to analysis. Not only are the system parameters for displaying data optimized, but suitable indexes, aggregates and joins are also stored in the database. Historical data can also be accessed and consistent analyses using several operative systems and even external data (for example via the Web) are possible.

This advantage of the data warehouse is won at great cost, in that additional systems (with additional administrative expense) and additional memory are needed, and that the data is, for performance reasons, usually not as up-to-date as in the operative system.

Direct Access

In the case of large amounts of detailed data, the decision has to be made as to whether the data has to be replicated in its entirety in the data warehouse, or simply in condensed form. If users have to create up-to-date reports, they can still access the data in the operative system, since usually data is replicated in the data warehouse only at certain intervals.

Of course, it is preferable for not all of the convenience of the data warehouse to be lost, for example, neither the general data model, nor the operating interfaces or display options. Therefore it is possible to allow direct access to operative data using the data warehouse tools, rather than offering a further reporting tool in every operative system.

This has the following advantages: Firstly it ensures that user interfaces are identical (or nearly identical). Secondly, a uniform data model can be accessed. Thirdly, operational business is not so burdened by reporting. Fourthly, as a rule, reporting programs can be replaced more frequently by new, improved versions than operative systems can. In this case, direct access is also improved.

Blurring the Boundaries

A fluid transition is created to a seamless combination of data from the data warehouse and data from operational systems. If historical data has to be combined and compared optimally and across systems with real-time data, one central reporting tool has to be used, and not separate tools that are distributed throughout the system. “Combination” does not only mean combining data that is entirely in the data warehouse with data that is entirely in the operative system. More often it is a case of obtaining data from a table in the data warehouse whenever possible and adding the missing current data from the operative system – naturally without the users knowing that the data comes from two different sources.

Only when the efficiency of commercially used computer systems is increased, and the cost of memory space falls, will it be possible to transfer even large amounts of detailed data in real-time to the data warehouse, as is required for higher flexibility. Moving old data to near line storage, which is 10 times cheaper than traditional methods of storing data, but which requires a somewhat longer access time, is one way of saving on memory costs that already exists. However, even in this scenario, the distributed storage of data has to be hidden from users and only regulated in the warehouse administrator.